Nuwe resepte

Booze 101: All About Gin

Booze 101: All About Gin

Die kans is goed dat u die bedankende woorde of iets soortgelyks in u lewenslange afspraak uitgespreek het. Uit ons ou man se drankkas en klassieke films soos Casablanca, na Billy Joel se "tonic and gin" in "Piano Man" en Snoop Dogg "sippin 'on gin and juice", was die botaniese gees al generasies lank al oral in ons drankbewussyn.

AROMAS EN GUNDE

Gin, 'n algemeen helder gees wat uit malte of korrels gedistilleer word en met jenewerbessies gegeur is, is die drank van legendes en geheimhouding van mantel en dolk, wat dikwels bestaan ​​uit 'n eie mengsel van plantaardige produkte. Alhoewel sommige vertroulike resepte in 'n kluis toegesluit kan word, is die volgende 'n lys van moontlike bestanddele wat u in verskillende gins kan vind:

  • koljander
  • sitrusskil (lemoen, suurlemoen)
  • korrels van die paradys
  • anys
  • venkel
  • drop
  • angelica wortel
  • cassia bas
  • orris wortel
  • komkommer

DIE TIPES

Duisel nog? Gekategoriseerde style is ook volop, so laat ons die afbreek.

Elke keer (Jenever): Die voorloper van gin, hierdie kategorie kan heeltemal van gin verskil. Sout met notas van kruie en speserye, dit kan verder verdeel word in jong, oud en korenwijn. Voorbeelde: Bols, Anchor Genevieve, Van Wees, Zuidam, Ketel 1 Graanjenever.

Londen (of London Dry): Die mees algemene styl van gin, gewoonlik gebottel teen 45% ABV (90 bewys). Alhoewel die naam 'n wetlike spesifikasie is wat in die EU en die Verenigde State erken word, word daar nie na spesifieke geografie verwys nie, en kan dit oral in die wêreld gemaak word. Dit is dikwels bekend vir sy sitrusprofiel deur die toevoeging van lemoenskil en gedroogde suurlemoen. Enige byvoeging van kunsmatige geure of kleure is egter verbode. Voorbeelde: Beefeater, Bombay Sapphire, Tanqueray.

Klik hier vir meer gin -tipes en om die volledige artikel oor Pacific Magazine te lees.


Hoe Gin werk

Die kenmerkende geur van Londense droë gin is die produk van die 19de eeuse imperiale uitbreiding. Juniper val die sterkste noot, maar die smaak van 'n klassieke droë gin uit Londen word geskep deur 'n mengsel van 'n dosyn of meer plantaardige produkte wat afkomstig is van eksotiese hawens tot in Afrika, China en Suid -Amerika.

In 1868 kan 'n tipiese Londense droë gin -resep die volgende insluit: jenewer, soet venkel, lemoenskil, lemoenblomwater, koljandersaad, angelikawortel, calamuswortel, kassia -knoppies, suurlemoenskil, kardemom, sederolie, soet amandels, neutmuskaat, mace, karwijsaad, wintergroen en heuning.

Maar een van die mees fassinerende byprodukte van die Britse imperialisme uit die 19de eeu is hoe die strengheid van internasionale seereise en die gesondheidsuitdagings van tropiese koloniale lewens gelei het tot die uitvinding van klassieke gin -cocktails soos die gin en tonic, die pienk gin en die gimlet.

Eerstens, die gin en tonic. Malaria was 'n plaag op matrose en Britse koloniste wat in tropiese klimate woon. Inheemses van Suid -Amerika het eeue lank aan die bas van die chinchona -boom gekou om die simptome van malaria te bekamp. Die bas bevat 'n natuurlike chemikalie genaamd kinien wat nie net die spierpyn en spasmas wat deur malaria veroorsaak word, kalmeer nie, maar ook die metabolisme van die malariaparasiet versteur en dit uiteindelik doodmaak.

Toe Europese dokters hiervan kennis neem, het hulle begin om profylaktiese chinchona -bas aan Britse soldate en koloniste in Indië voor te skryf. In die 1840's verbruik Britse soldate en setlaars 700 ton (635 ton) chinchona -bas per jaar.

'N Wateroplosbare vorm van kinien is in die 1850's uitgevind, wat gelei het tot die bottel van die eerste "Indiese kinien tonika", en die vroegste toniese waters. Schweppes was een van die eerste groot bottelaars met koolzuurhoudende toniese water.

Intussen vaar die Britse vloot na elke hawe ter wêreld en bring bottels droë gin uit Londen. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat offisiere en koloniste hul gunsteling tippel met 'n skeut toniese water vir hul gesondheid begin kombineer. En die gin en tonic is gebore!

Dieselfde met bitters. Bitter is eers in die 18de eeu voorgeskryf as 'n genesende tonikum vir jig. Maar teen die 19de eeu word bitter as 'n geneesmiddel verkoop vir 'n menigte reisverwante kwale wat verband hou met lang seereise en lewe in tropiese klimate. Die basiese resep vir bitter is bitter lemoenskil, karavyolie, kardemom, asemolie en baie suiker.

'N Duitser met die naam Johann Siegert het in die 1820's na Venezuela verhuis om as die chirurg -generaal in 'n revolusionêre leër te dien. Hy vestig hom in die stad Angostura en begin met die vervaardiging van sy eie soort bitter vir sy soldate vir seesiekte en spysverteringsprobleme. In die 1830's het hy begin bottel en verkoop sy nou beroemde angostura bitters.

Binnekort het Britse matrose wêreldwyd 'medisyne' vir cocktails van droë gin uit Londen en 'n skeut Angostura Bitters laat sak, of wat bekend staan ​​as 'n pienk jenewer.

En dan is daar skeurbuik, die dodelikste plaag vir langafstandseilers. In die 18de eeu word geskat dat skeurbuik meer Britse soldate as die Franse doodgemaak het. Skeurbuik word veroorsaak deur 'n vitamien C -tekort wat talle nare simptome veroorsaak: lusteloosheid, bloeiende tandvleis, tande val uit, ou wonde heropen, sensasieverlies in die ledemate. Dit het matrose in groot getalle doodgemaak.

Skeurbuik kan maklik genees word met sitrusvrugte, maar vars sitrus hou nie lank aan boord van 'n skip nie. Matrose het suurlemoensap probeer kook en kondenseer, maar die proses het die vitamien C gaargemaak. Uiteindelik het 'n Skotse wetenskaplike met die naam Lachlan Rose 'n manier gevind om limoensap te bewaar deur dit met 'n klein hoeveelheid swaeldioksied te meng. Rose's Lime Juice het 'n stapelvoedsel geword, en dit was nie lank voordat dit met gin gemeng is om 'n klassieke gimlet.

(Daar is mededingende verhale oor die naam van die gimlet. Ander bronne sê dat dit vernoem kan word na sir Thomas Gimlette, chirurg-generaal van die Britse vloot, of die skroewedraaieragtige handgereedskap wat gebruik word om vate lemmetjiesap oop te maak.)

Verbod en & quotBathtub Gin & quot

Terwyl die Britse koloniste hul eerste mengeldrankies geniet het, het Amerikaners 'n eie cocktailkultuur opgebou. Teen die Burgeroorlog (1860's) is cocktails in Amerikaanse styl gekenmerk deur verskillende kombinasies van drank, bitter en suikerwater en het die name soos & quotgin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and wood doodle. & Quot

Die klassieke gin martini verskyn in die 1870's en 1880's. Van Richard Barnett, skrywer van & quotThe Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists 'Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails & quot: The martini is & quotan verpersoonliking van Amerikaanse geskiedenis op sy mees uiteenlopende: Nederlandse en Engelse gin , gemeng met Franse vermout, en bedien met Mediterreense olywe, Duits-Joodse gepekelde uie of Karibiese suurlemoene.

Maar die ware Amerikaanse cocktailboom is aangespoor deur die verbygaan van die verbod in 1920. Met 'n verbod op die vervaardiging en verkoop van alkohol het die drankbedryf ondergronds gegaan, en jenewer is een van die maklikste drankies om goedkoop te maak.

Die 1920's was weer soos die Gin Craze. Bootleggers sou alles doen om graanalkohol in die hande te kry. Dit sluit transaksies in met agterdeur met industriële alkoholvervaardigers en die aankoop van maanskyn uit stilhout van agterhout. Sodra u die graanalkohol gekry het, is dit 'n vinnige stap om gin te maak. U kan eenvoudig water en jenewerolie byvoeg, maar sommige mense gaan terug na die Gin Craze -dae om graanalkohol met terpentynolie en swaelsuur te verhoog.

Vir 'n verbiedsparty was die skoon, pienk afwerking van 'n droë gin uit Londen weg. In plaas daarvan kry hulle 'n badbad -gin, en 'n kleurvolle bynaam wat verwys na sy tuisgemaakte oorsprong en vuil nasmaak. Maar moenie bekommerd wees nie, want selfs die onaangenaamste jenewer van die bad kan bedek word met 'n kombinasie van sterk bitter, sitrus en eenvoudige stroop.

Die martini, die Manhattan, die gin fizz, die gimlet: Amerikaners van die Jazz-era was mal oor cocktails, en nadat die verbod in die dertigerjare geëindig het, het skemerkelkies die mode geword om te vermaak.


Hoe Gin werk

Die kenmerkende geur van Londense droë gin is die produk van die 19de eeuse imperiale uitbreiding. Juniper val die sterkste noot, maar die smaak van 'n klassieke droë gin uit Londen word gevorm deur 'n mengsel van 'n dosyn of meer plantaardige produkte wat afkomstig is van eksotiese hawens tot in Afrika, China en Suid -Amerika.

In 1868 kan 'n tipiese Londense droë gin -resep die volgende insluit: jenewer, soet venkel, lemoenskil, lemoenblomwater, koljandersaad, angelikawortel, calamuswortel, kassia -knoppies, suurlemoenskil, kardemom, sederolie, soet amandels, neutmuskaat, mace, karwijsaad, wintergroen en heuning.

Maar een van die mees fassinerende byprodukte van die Britse imperialisme uit die 19de eeu is hoe die strengheid van internasionale seereise en die gesondheidsuitdagings van tropiese koloniale lewens gelei het tot die uitvinding van klassieke gin -cocktails soos die gin en tonic, die pienk gin en die gimlet.

Eerstens, die gin en tonic. Malaria was 'n plaag op matrose en Britse koloniste wat in tropiese klimate woon. Inheemses van Suid -Amerika het eeue lank aan die bas van die chinchona -boom gekou om die simptome van malaria te bekamp. Die bas bevat 'n natuurlike chemikalie genaamd kinien, wat nie net die spierpyn en spasmas wat deur malaria veroorsaak word, kalmeer nie, maar ook die metabolisme van die malariaparasiet versteur en dit uiteindelik doodmaak.

Toe Europese dokters hiervan kennis neem, het hulle begin om profylaktiese chinchona -bas aan Britse soldate en koloniste in Indië voor te skryf. In die 1840's verbruik Britse soldate en setlaars 700 ton (635 ton) chinchona -bas per jaar.

'N Wateroplosbare vorm van kinien is in die 1850's uitgevind, wat gelei het tot die bottel van die eerste "Indiese kinien tonika", en die vroegste toniese waters. Schweppes was een van die eerste groot bottelaars met koolzuurhoudende toniese water.

Intussen vaar die Britse vloot na elke hawe ter wêreld en bring bottels droë gin uit Londen. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat offisiere en koloniste hul gunsteling tippel met 'n skeut toniese water vir hul gesondheid begin kombineer. En die gin en tonic is gebore!

Dieselfde met bitters. Bitter is eers in die 18de eeu voorgeskryf as 'n genesende tonikum vir jig. Maar teen die 19de eeu word bitter as 'n geneesmiddel verkoop vir 'n menigte reisverwante kwale wat verband hou met lang seereise en lewe in tropiese klimate. Die basiese resep vir bitter is bitter lemoenskil, karavyolie, kardemom, asemolie en baie suiker.

'N Duitser met die naam Johann Siegert het in die 1820's na Venezuela verhuis om as die chirurg -generaal in 'n revolusionêre leër te dien. Hy vestig hom in die stad Angostura en begin met die vervaardiging van sy eie soort bitter vir sy soldate vir seesiekte en spysverteringsprobleme. In die 1830's het hy begin bottel en verkoop sy nou beroemde angostura bitters.

Binnekort het Britse matrose wêreldwyd 'medisyne' vir cocktails van droë gin uit Londen en 'n skeut Angostura Bitters laat sak, of wat bekend staan ​​as 'n pienk jenewer.

En dan is daar skeurbuik, die dodelikste plaag vir langafstandseilers. In die 18de eeu word geskat dat skeurbuik meer Britse soldate as die Franse doodgemaak het. Skeurbuik word veroorsaak deur 'n vitamien C -tekort wat talle nare simptome veroorsaak: lusteloosheid, bloeiende tandvleis, tande val uit, ou wonde heropen, sensasieverlies in die ledemate. Dit het matrose in groot getalle doodgemaak.

Skeurbuik kan maklik genees word met sitrusvrugte, maar vars sitrus hou nie lank aan boord van 'n skip nie. Matrose het suurlemoensap probeer kook en kondenseer, maar die proses het die vitamien C gaargemaak. Uiteindelik het 'n Skotse wetenskaplike met die naam Lachlan Rose 'n manier gevind om limoensap te bewaar deur dit met 'n klein hoeveelheid swaeldioksied te meng. Rose's Lime Juice het 'n stapelvoedsel geword, en dit was nie lank voordat dit met gin gemeng is om 'n klassieke gimlet.

(Daar is mededingende verhale oor die naam van die gimlet. Ander bronne sê dat dit vernoem kan word na sir Thomas Gimlette, chirurg-generaal van die Britse vloot, of die skroewedraaieragtige handgereedskap wat gebruik word om vate lemmetjiesap oop te maak.)

Verbod en & quotBathtub Gin & quot

Terwyl die Britse koloniste hul eerste mengeldrankies geniet het, het Amerikaners 'n eie cocktailkultuur opgebou. Teen die Burgeroorlog (1860's) is cocktails in Amerikaanse styl gekenmerk deur verskillende kombinasies van drank, bitter en suikerwater en het die name soos & quotgin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and wood doodle. & Quot

Die klassieke gin martini verskyn in die 1870's en 1880's. Van Richard Barnett, skrywer van & quotThe Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists 'Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails & quot: The martini is & quotan verpersoonliking van Amerikaanse geskiedenis op sy mees uiteenlopende: Nederlandse en Engelse gin , gemeng met Franse vermout, en bedien met Mediterreense olywe, Duits-Joodse gepekelde uie of Karibiese suurlemoene. & quot Die kenmerkende koniese martini-glas is in die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu gewild.

Maar die ware Amerikaanse skemerkelkie is aangespoor deur die verbygaan van die verbod in 1920. Met 'n verbod op die vervaardiging en verkoop van alkohol het die drankbedryf ondergronds gegaan, en jenewer is een van die maklikste drankies om goedkoop te maak.

Die 1920's was weer soos die Gin Craze. Bootleggers sou alles doen om graanalkohol in die hande te kry. Dit sluit transaksies in met agterdeur met industriële alkoholvervaardigers en die aankoop van maanskyn uit stilhout van agterhout. Sodra u die graanalkohol gekry het, is dit 'n vinnige stap om gin te maak. U kan eenvoudig water en jenewerolie byvoeg, maar sommige mense gaan terug na die Gin Craze -dae om graanalkohol met terpentynolie en swaelsuur te verhoog.

Vir 'n verbiedsparty was die skoon, pienk afwerking van 'n droë gin uit Londen weg. In plaas daarvan kry hulle 'n badbad -gin, en 'n kleurvolle bynaam wat verwys na sy tuisgemaakte oorsprong en vuil nasmaak. Maar moenie bekommerd wees nie, want selfs die onaangenaamste jenewer van die bad kan bedek word met 'n kombinasie van sterk bitter, sitrus en eenvoudige stroop.

Die martini, die Manhattan, die gin fizz, die gimlet: Amerikaners van die Jazz-era was mal oor cocktails, en nadat die verbod in die dertigerjare geëindig het, het skemerkelkies die mode geword om te vermaak.


Hoe Gin werk

Die kenmerkende geur van Londense droë gin is die produk van die 19de eeuse imperiale uitbreiding. Juniper val die sterkste noot, maar die smaak van 'n klassieke droë gin uit Londen word geskep deur 'n mengsel van 'n dosyn of meer plantaardige produkte wat afkomstig is van eksotiese hawens tot in Afrika, China en Suid -Amerika.

In 1868 kan 'n tipiese Londense droë gin -resep die volgende insluit: jenewer, soet venkel, lemoenskil, lemoenblomwater, koljandersaad, angelikawortel, calamuswortel, kassia -knoppies, suurlemoenskil, kardemom, sederolie, soet amandels, neutmuskaat, mace, karwijsaad, wintergroen en heuning.

Maar een van die mees fassinerende byprodukte van die Britse imperialisme uit die 19de eeu is hoe die strengheid van internasionale seereise en die gesondheidsuitdagings van tropiese koloniale lewens gelei het tot die uitvinding van klassieke gin -cocktails soos die gin en tonic, die pienk gin en die gimlet.

Eerstens, die gin en tonic. Malaria was 'n plaag op matrose en Britse koloniste wat in tropiese klimate woon. Inheemses van Suid -Amerika het eeue lank aan die bas van die chinchona -boom gekou om die simptome van malaria te bekamp. Die bas bevat 'n natuurlike chemikalie genaamd kinien, wat nie net die spierpyn en spasmas wat deur malaria veroorsaak word, kalmeer nie, maar ook die metabolisme van die malariaparasiet versteur en dit uiteindelik doodmaak.

Toe Europese dokters hiervan kennis neem, het hulle begin om profylaktiese chinchona -bas aan Britse soldate en koloniste in Indië voor te skryf. In die 1840's verbruik Britse soldate en setlaars 700 ton (635 ton) chinchona -bas per jaar.

'N Wateroplosbare vorm van kinien is in die 1850's uitgevind, wat gelei het tot die bottel van die eerste "Indiese kinien tonika", en die vroegste toniese waters. Schweppes was een van die eerste groot bottelaars met koolzuurhoudende toniese water.

Intussen vaar die Britse vloot na elke hawe ter wêreld en bring bottels droë gin uit Londen. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat offisiere en koloniste hul gunsteling tippel met 'n skeut toniese water vir hul gesondheid begin kombineer. En die gin en tonic is gebore!

Dieselfde met bitters. Bitter is eers in die 18de eeu voorgeskryf as 'n genesende tonikum vir jig. Maar teen die 19de eeu word bitter as 'n geneesmiddel verkoop vir 'n menigte reisverwante kwale wat verband hou met lang seereise en lewe in tropiese klimate. Die basiese resep vir bitter is bitter lemoenskil, karavyolie, kardemom, asemolie en baie suiker.

'N Duitser met die naam Johann Siegert het in die 1820's na Venezuela verhuis om as die chirurg -generaal in 'n revolusionêre leër te dien. Hy vestig hom in die stad Angostura en begin met die vervaardiging van sy eie soort bitter vir sy soldate vir seesiekte en spysverteringsprobleme. In die 1830's het hy begin bottel en verkoop sy nou beroemde angostura bitters.

Binnekort het Britse matrose wêreldwyd 'n mediese cocktail van droë gin uit Londen en 'n skeut Angostura Bitters laat sak, of wat bekend staan ​​as 'n pienk jenewer.

En dan is daar skeurbuik, die dodelikste plaag vir langafstandseilers. In die 18de eeu word geskat dat skeurbuik meer Britse soldate as die Franse doodgemaak het. Skeurbuik word veroorsaak deur 'n vitamien C -tekort wat talle nare simptome veroorsaak: lusteloosheid, bloeiende tandvleis, tande val uit, ou wonde heropen, sensasieverlies in die ledemate. Dit het matrose in groot getalle doodgemaak.

Skeurbuik kan maklik genees word met sitrusvrugte, maar vars sitrus hou nie lank aan boord van 'n skip nie. Matrose het suurlemoensap probeer kook en kondenseer, maar die proses het die vitamien C gaargemaak. Uiteindelik het 'n Skotse wetenskaplike met die naam Lachlan Rose 'n manier gevind om limoensap te bewaar deur dit met 'n klein hoeveelheid swaeldioksied te meng. Rose's Lime Juice het 'n stapelvoedsel geword, en dit was nie lank voordat dit met jenewer gemeng is om 'n klassieke gimlet.

(Daar is mededingende verhale oor die naam van die gimlet. Ander bronne sê dat dit vernoem kan word na sir Thomas Gimlette, chirurg-generaal van die Britse vloot, of die skroewedraaieragtige handgereedskap wat gebruik word om vate lemmetjiesap oop te maak.)

Verbod en & quotBathtub Gin & quot

Terwyl die Britse koloniste hul eerste mengeldrankies geniet het, het Amerikaners 'n eie cocktailkultuur opgebou. Teen die Burgeroorlog (1860's) is cocktails in Amerikaanse styl gekenmerk deur verskillende kombinasies van drank, bitter en suikerwater en het die name soos & quotgin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and wood doodle. & Quot

Die klassieke gin martini verskyn in die 1870's en 1880's. Van Richard Barnett, skrywer van "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists 'Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is 'n verpersoonliking van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis op sy mees uiteenlopende: Nederlandse en Engelse gin , gemeng met Franse vermout, en bedien met Mediterreense olywe, Duits-Joodse gepekelde uie of Karibiese suurlemoene. & quot Die kenmerkende koniese martini-glas is in die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu gewild.

Maar die ware Amerikaanse cocktailboom is aangespoor deur die verbygaan van die verbod in 1920. Met 'n verbod op die vervaardiging en verkoop van alkohol het die drankbedryf ondergronds gegaan, en jenewer is een van die maklikste drankies om goedkoop te maak.

Die 1920's was weer soos die Gin Craze. Bootleggers sou alles doen om graanalkohol in die hande te kry. Dit sluit transaksies in met agterdeur met industriële alkoholvervaardigers en die aankoop van maanskyn uit stilhout van agterhout. Sodra u die graanalkohol gekry het, is dit 'n vinnige stap om gin te maak. U kan eenvoudig water en jenewerolie byvoeg, maar sommige mense gaan terug na die Gin Craze -dae om graanalkohol met terpentynolie en swaelsuur te verhoog.

Vir 'n verbiedsparty was die skoon, pienk afwerking van 'n droë gin uit Londen weg. In plaas daarvan kry hulle 'n badbad -gin, en 'n kleurvolle bynaam wat verwys na sy tuisgemaakte oorsprong en vuil nasmaak. Maar moenie bekommerd wees nie, want selfs die slegste proe van die badbad kan bedek word met 'n kombinasie van sterk bitter, sitrus en eenvoudige stroop.

Die martini, die Manhattan, die gin fizz, die gimlet: Amerikaners van die Jazz-era was mal oor cocktails, en nadat die verbod in die dertigerjare geëindig het, het skemerkelkies die mode geword om te vermaak.


Hoe Gin werk

Die kenmerkende geur van Londense droë gin is die produk van die 19de eeuse imperiale uitbreiding. Juniper val die sterkste noot, maar die smaak van 'n klassieke droë gin uit Londen word geskep deur 'n mengsel van 'n dosyn of meer plantaardige produkte wat afkomstig is van eksotiese hawens tot in Afrika, China en Suid -Amerika.

In 1868 kan 'n tipiese Londense droë gin -resep die volgende insluit: jenewer, soet vinkel, lemoenskil, lemoenblomwater, koljandersaad, engelwortel, kalmoeswortel, kassia -knoppies, suurlemoenskil, kardemom, sederolie, soet amandels, neutmuskaat, mace, karwijsaad, wintergroen en heuning.

Maar een van die mees fassinerende byprodukte van die Britse imperialisme uit die 19de eeu is hoe die strengheid van internasionale seereise en die gesondheidsuitdagings van tropiese koloniale lewens gelei het tot die uitvinding van klassieke gin -cocktails soos die gin en tonic, die pienk gin en die gimlet.

Eerstens, die gin en tonic. Malaria was 'n plaag op matrose en Britse koloniste wat in tropiese klimate woon. Inheemses van Suid -Amerika het eeue lank aan die bas van die chinchona -boom gekou om die simptome van malaria te bekamp. Die bas bevat 'n natuurlike chemikalie genaamd kinien, wat nie net die spierpyn en spasmas wat deur malaria veroorsaak word, kalmeer nie, maar ook die metabolisme van die malariaparasiet versteur en dit uiteindelik doodmaak.

Toe Europese dokters hiervan kennis neem, het hulle begin om profylaktiese chinchona -bas aan Britse soldate en koloniste in Indië voor te skryf. In die 1840's verbruik Britse soldate en setlaars 700 ton (635 ton) chinchona -bas per jaar.

'N Wateroplosbare vorm van kinien is in die 1850's uitgevind, wat gelei het tot die bottel van die eerste & quot; Indiese kinien tonika, & quot; die vroegste toniese waters. Schweppes was een van die eerste groot bottelaars met koolzuurhoudende toniese water.

Intussen vaar die Britse vloot na elke hawe ter wêreld en bring bottels droë gin uit Londen. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat offisiere en koloniste hul gunsteling tippel met 'n skeut toniese water vir hul gesondheid begin kombineer. En die gin en tonic is gebore!

Dieselfde met bitters. Bitter is eers in die 18de eeu voorgeskryf as 'n genesende tonikum vir jig. Maar teen die 19de eeu word bitter as 'n geneesmiddel verkoop vir 'n menigte reisverwante kwale wat verband hou met lang seereise en lewe in tropiese klimate. Die basiese resep vir bitter is bitter lemoenskil, karavyolie, kardemom, asemolie en baie suiker.

'N Duitser met die naam Johann Siegert het in die 1820's na Venezuela verhuis om as die chirurg -generaal in 'n revolusionêre leër te dien. Hy vestig hom in die stad Angostura en begin met die vervaardiging van sy eie soort bitter vir sy soldate vir seesiekte en spysverteringsprobleme. In die 1830's het hy begin bottel en verkoop sy nou beroemde angostura bitters.

Binnekort het Britse matrose wêreldwyd 'n mediese cocktail van droë gin uit Londen en 'n skeut Angostura Bitters laat sak, of wat bekend staan ​​as 'n pienk jenewer.

En dan is daar skeurbuik, die dodelikste plaag vir langafstandseilers. In die 18de eeu word geskat dat skeurbuik meer Britse soldate as die Franse doodgemaak het. Skeurbuik word veroorsaak deur 'n vitamien C -tekort wat talle nare simptome veroorsaak: lusteloosheid, bloeiende tandvleis, tande val uit, ou wonde heropen, sensasieverlies in die ledemate. Dit het matrose in groot getalle doodgemaak.

Skeurbuik kan maklik genees word met sitrusvrugte, maar vars sitrus hou nie lank aan boord van 'n skip nie. Matrose het suurlemoensap probeer kook en kondenseer, maar die proses het die vitamien C gaargemaak. Uiteindelik het 'n Skotse wetenskaplike met die naam Lachlan Rose 'n manier gevind om limoensap te bewaar deur dit met 'n klein hoeveelheid swaeldioksied te meng. Rose's Lime Juice het 'n stapelvoedsel geword, en dit was nie lank voordat dit met jenewer gemeng is om 'n klassieke gimlet.

(Daar is mededingende verhale oor die naam van die gimlet. Ander bronne sê dat dit vernoem kan word na sir Thomas Gimlette, chirurg-generaal van die Britse vloot, of die skroewedraaieragtige handgereedskap wat gebruik word om vate lemmetjiesap oop te maak.)

Verbod en & quotBadbad Gin & quot

Terwyl die Britse koloniste hul eerste mengeldrankies geniet het, het Amerikaners 'n eie cocktailkultuur opgebou. Teen die Burgeroorlog (1860's) is cocktails in Amerikaanse styl gekenmerk deur verskillende kombinasies van drank, bitter en suikerwater en het die name soos & quotgin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and wood doodle. & Quot

Die klassieke gin martini verskyn in die 1870's en 1880's. Van Richard Barnett, skrywer van "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists 'Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is 'n verpersoonliking van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis op sy mees uiteenlopende: Nederlandse en Engelse gin , gemeng met Franse vermout, en bedien met Mediterreense olywe, Duits-Joodse gepekelde uie of Karibiese suurlemoene. & quot Die kenmerkende koniese martini-glas is in die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu gewild.

Maar die ware Amerikaanse cocktailboom is aangespoor deur die verbygaan van die verbod in 1920. Met 'n verbod op die vervaardiging en verkoop van alkohol het die drankbedryf ondergronds gegaan, en jenewer is een van die maklikste drankies om goedkoop te maak.

Die 1920's was weer soos die Gin Craze. Bootleggers sou alles doen om graanalkohol in die hande te kry. Dit sluit transaksies in met agterdeur met industriële alkoholvervaardigers en die aankoop van maanskyn uit stilhout van agterhout. Sodra u die graanalkohol gekry het, is dit 'n vinnige stap om gin te maak. U kan eenvoudig water en jenewerolie byvoeg, maar sommige mense gaan terug na die Gin Craze -dae om graanalkohol met terpentynolie en swaelsuur te verhoog.

Vir 'n verbiedsparty was die skoon, pienk afwerking van 'n droë gin uit Londen weg. In plaas daarvan kry hulle 'n badbad -gin, en 'n kleurvolle bynaam wat verwys na sy tuisgemaakte oorsprong en vuil nasmaak. Maar moenie bekommerd wees nie, want selfs die slegste proe -jenewer kan bedek word met 'n kombinasie van sterk bitter, sitrus en eenvoudige stroop.

Die martini, die Manhattan, die gin fizz, die gimlet: Amerikaners uit die ouderdom van Jazz was mal oor cocktails, en nadat die verbod in die dertigerjare geëindig het, het skemerkelkies die mode geword om te vermaak.


Hoe Gin werk

Die kenmerkende geur van Londense droë gin is die produk van die 19de eeuse imperiale uitbreiding. Juniper val die sterkste noot, maar die smaak van 'n klassieke droë gin uit Londen word gevorm deur 'n mengsel van 'n dosyn of meer plantaardige produkte wat afkomstig is van eksotiese hawens tot in Afrika, China en Suid -Amerika.

In 1868 kan 'n tipiese Londense droë gin -resep die volgende insluit: jenewer, soet venkel, lemoenskil, lemoenblomwater, koljandersaad, angelikawortel, calamuswortel, kassia -knoppies, suurlemoenskil, kardemom, sederolie, soet amandels, neutmuskaat, mace, karwijsaad, wintergroen en heuning.

Maar een van die mees fassinerende byprodukte van die Britse imperialisme uit die 19de eeu is hoe die strengheid van internasionale seereise en die gesondheidsuitdagings van tropiese koloniale lewens gelei het tot die uitvinding van klassieke gin -cocktails soos die gin en tonic, die pienk gin en die gimlet.

Eerstens, die gin en tonic. Malaria was 'n plaag op matrose en Britse koloniste wat in tropiese klimate woon. Inheemses van Suid -Amerika het eeue lank aan die bas van die chinchona -boom gekou om die simptome van malaria te bekamp. Die bas bevat 'n natuurlike chemikalie genaamd kinien wat nie net die spierpyn en spasmas wat deur malaria veroorsaak word, kalmeer nie, maar ook die metabolisme van die malariaparasiet versteur en dit uiteindelik doodmaak.

Toe Europese dokters hiervan kennis neem, het hulle begin om profylaktiese chinchona -bas aan Britse soldate en koloniste in Indië voor te skryf. In die 1840's verbruik Britse soldate en setlaars 700 ton (635 ton) chinchona -bas per jaar.

'N Wateroplosbare vorm van kinien is in die 1850's uitgevind, wat gelei het tot die bottel van die eerste "Indiese kinien tonika", en die vroegste toniese waters. Schweppes was een van die eerste groot bottelaars met koolzuurhoudende toniese water.

Intussen vaar die Britse vloot na elke hawe ter wêreld en bring bottels droë gin uit Londen. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat offisiere en koloniste hul gunsteling tippel met 'n skeut toniese water vir hul gesondheid begin kombineer. En die gin en tonic is gebore!

Dieselfde met bitters. Bitter is eers in die 18de eeu voorgeskryf as 'n genesende tonikum vir jig. Maar teen die 19de eeu word bitter as 'n geneesmiddel verkoop vir 'n menigte reisverwante kwale wat verband hou met lang seereise en lewe in tropiese klimate. Die basiese resep vir bitter is bitter lemoenskil, karavyolie, kardemom, asemolie en baie suiker.

'N Duitser met die naam Johann Siegert het in die 1820's na Venezuela verhuis om as die chirurg -generaal in 'n revolusionêre leër te dien. Hy vestig hom in die stad Angostura en begin met die vervaardiging van sy eie soort bitter vir sy soldate vir seesiekte en spysverteringsprobleme. In die 1830's het hy begin bottel en verkoop sy nou beroemde angostura bitters.

Binnekort het Britse matrose wêreldwyd 'n mediese cocktail van droë gin uit Londen en 'n skeut Angostura Bitters laat sak, of wat bekend staan ​​as 'n pienk jenewer.

En dan is daar skeurbuik, die dodelikste plaag vir langafstandseilers. In die 18de eeu word geskat dat skeurbuik meer Britse soldate as die Franse doodgemaak het. Skeurbuik word veroorsaak deur 'n vitamien C -tekort wat talle nare simptome veroorsaak: lusteloosheid, bloeiende tandvleis, tande val uit, ou wonde heropen, sensasieverlies in die ledemate. Dit het matrose in groot getalle doodgemaak.

Skeurbuik kan maklik genees word met sitrusvrugte, maar vars sitrus hou nie lank aan boord van 'n skip nie. Matrose het suurlemoensap probeer kook en kondenseer, maar die proses het die vitamien C gaargemaak. Uiteindelik het 'n Skotse wetenskaplike met die naam Lachlan Rose 'n manier gevind om limoensap te bewaar deur dit met 'n klein hoeveelheid swaeldioksied te meng. Rose's Lime Juice het 'n stapelvoedsel geword, en dit was nie lank voordat dit met jenewer gemeng is om 'n klassieke gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.


How Gin Works

The characteristic flavor of London dry gin is the product of 19th century imperial expansion. Juniper strikes the strongest note, but the taste of a classic London dry gin is created by a blend of a dozen or more botanicals sourced from exotic ports as far away as Africa, China and South America.

In 1868, a typical London dry gin recipe might include: juniper, sweet fennel, orange peel, orange flower water, coriander seed, angelica root, calamus root, cassia buds, lemon peel, cardamom, oil of cedar, sweet almonds, nutmeg, mace, caraway seed, wintergreen and honey.

But one of the most fascinating byproducts of 19th century British imperialism is how the rigors of international sea travel and the health challenges of tropical colonial living led to the invention of classic gin cocktails like the gin and tonic, the pink gin and the gimlet.

First, the gin and tonic. Malaria was a plague on sailors and British colonists living in tropical climates. For centuries, natives of South America chewed on the bark of the chinchona tree to combat the symptoms of malaria. The bark contains a natural chemical called quinine that not only calms the muscle aches and spasms caused by malaria, but disrupts the malaria parasite's metabolism, eventually killing it.

When European doctors got wind of this, they began prescribing prophylactic chinchona bark to British soldiers and colonists in India. In the 1840s, British soldiers and settlers were consuming 700 tons (635 metric tons) of chinchona bark a year.

A water-soluble form of quinine was invented in the 1850s, which lead to the bottling of the first "Indian quinine tonics," the earliest tonic waters. Schweppes was one of the first big bottlers of carbonated tonic water.

Meanwhile, the British Navy was sailing to every port in the world and bringing bottles of London dry gin with them. It was only a matter of time before officers and colonists began combining their favorite tipple with a shot of tonic water for their health. And the gin and tonic was born!

The same with bitters. Bitters were first prescribed up as a curative tonic for gout in the 18th century. But by the 19th century, bitters were being sold as a cure-all for a host of travel-related ailments related to long sea journeys and life in tropical climates. The basic recipe for bitters is bitter orange peel, oil of carraway, cardamom, oil of wormwood and plenty of sugar.

A German named Johann Siegert moved to Venezuela in the 1820s to serve as the surgeon general in a revolutionary army. He settled in the town of Angostura and began producing his own brand of bitters for treating his soldiers for seasickness and digestive ailments. In the 1830s, he started bottling and selling his now-famous angostura bitters.

Soon British sailors worldwide were downing "medicinal" cocktails of London dry gin and a shot of Angostura Bitters, or what's known as a pink gin.

And then there's scurvy, the deadliest scourge for long-haul sailors. Over the 18th century, it's estimated that scurvy killed more British soldiers than the French. Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that brings on a host of nasty symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth fall out, old wounds reopen, loss of sensation in the limbs. It killed sailors in droves.

Scurvy can be easily cured with citrus fruit, but fresh citrus doesn't last long aboard a ship. Sailors tried to boil and condense lime juice, but the process cooked out the vitamin C. Eventually, a Scottish scientists named Lachlan Rose figured out a way to preserve lime juice by mixing it with a small quantity of sulphur dioxide. Rose's Lime Juice became a shipboard staple, and it wasn't long before it was being mixed with gin to make a classic gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.


How Gin Works

The characteristic flavor of London dry gin is the product of 19th century imperial expansion. Juniper strikes the strongest note, but the taste of a classic London dry gin is created by a blend of a dozen or more botanicals sourced from exotic ports as far away as Africa, China and South America.

In 1868, a typical London dry gin recipe might include: juniper, sweet fennel, orange peel, orange flower water, coriander seed, angelica root, calamus root, cassia buds, lemon peel, cardamom, oil of cedar, sweet almonds, nutmeg, mace, caraway seed, wintergreen and honey.

But one of the most fascinating byproducts of 19th century British imperialism is how the rigors of international sea travel and the health challenges of tropical colonial living led to the invention of classic gin cocktails like the gin and tonic, the pink gin and the gimlet.

First, the gin and tonic. Malaria was a plague on sailors and British colonists living in tropical climates. For centuries, natives of South America chewed on the bark of the chinchona tree to combat the symptoms of malaria. The bark contains a natural chemical called quinine that not only calms the muscle aches and spasms caused by malaria, but disrupts the malaria parasite's metabolism, eventually killing it.

When European doctors got wind of this, they began prescribing prophylactic chinchona bark to British soldiers and colonists in India. In the 1840s, British soldiers and settlers were consuming 700 tons (635 metric tons) of chinchona bark a year.

A water-soluble form of quinine was invented in the 1850s, which lead to the bottling of the first "Indian quinine tonics," the earliest tonic waters. Schweppes was one of the first big bottlers of carbonated tonic water.

Meanwhile, the British Navy was sailing to every port in the world and bringing bottles of London dry gin with them. It was only a matter of time before officers and colonists began combining their favorite tipple with a shot of tonic water for their health. And the gin and tonic was born!

The same with bitters. Bitters were first prescribed up as a curative tonic for gout in the 18th century. But by the 19th century, bitters were being sold as a cure-all for a host of travel-related ailments related to long sea journeys and life in tropical climates. The basic recipe for bitters is bitter orange peel, oil of carraway, cardamom, oil of wormwood and plenty of sugar.

A German named Johann Siegert moved to Venezuela in the 1820s to serve as the surgeon general in a revolutionary army. He settled in the town of Angostura and began producing his own brand of bitters for treating his soldiers for seasickness and digestive ailments. In the 1830s, he started bottling and selling his now-famous angostura bitters.

Soon British sailors worldwide were downing "medicinal" cocktails of London dry gin and a shot of Angostura Bitters, or what's known as a pink gin.

And then there's scurvy, the deadliest scourge for long-haul sailors. Over the 18th century, it's estimated that scurvy killed more British soldiers than the French. Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that brings on a host of nasty symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth fall out, old wounds reopen, loss of sensation in the limbs. It killed sailors in droves.

Scurvy can be easily cured with citrus fruit, but fresh citrus doesn't last long aboard a ship. Sailors tried to boil and condense lime juice, but the process cooked out the vitamin C. Eventually, a Scottish scientists named Lachlan Rose figured out a way to preserve lime juice by mixing it with a small quantity of sulphur dioxide. Rose's Lime Juice became a shipboard staple, and it wasn't long before it was being mixed with gin to make a classic gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.


How Gin Works

The characteristic flavor of London dry gin is the product of 19th century imperial expansion. Juniper strikes the strongest note, but the taste of a classic London dry gin is created by a blend of a dozen or more botanicals sourced from exotic ports as far away as Africa, China and South America.

In 1868, a typical London dry gin recipe might include: juniper, sweet fennel, orange peel, orange flower water, coriander seed, angelica root, calamus root, cassia buds, lemon peel, cardamom, oil of cedar, sweet almonds, nutmeg, mace, caraway seed, wintergreen and honey.

But one of the most fascinating byproducts of 19th century British imperialism is how the rigors of international sea travel and the health challenges of tropical colonial living led to the invention of classic gin cocktails like the gin and tonic, the pink gin and the gimlet.

First, the gin and tonic. Malaria was a plague on sailors and British colonists living in tropical climates. For centuries, natives of South America chewed on the bark of the chinchona tree to combat the symptoms of malaria. The bark contains a natural chemical called quinine that not only calms the muscle aches and spasms caused by malaria, but disrupts the malaria parasite's metabolism, eventually killing it.

When European doctors got wind of this, they began prescribing prophylactic chinchona bark to British soldiers and colonists in India. In the 1840s, British soldiers and settlers were consuming 700 tons (635 metric tons) of chinchona bark a year.

A water-soluble form of quinine was invented in the 1850s, which lead to the bottling of the first "Indian quinine tonics," the earliest tonic waters. Schweppes was one of the first big bottlers of carbonated tonic water.

Meanwhile, the British Navy was sailing to every port in the world and bringing bottles of London dry gin with them. It was only a matter of time before officers and colonists began combining their favorite tipple with a shot of tonic water for their health. And the gin and tonic was born!

The same with bitters. Bitters were first prescribed up as a curative tonic for gout in the 18th century. But by the 19th century, bitters were being sold as a cure-all for a host of travel-related ailments related to long sea journeys and life in tropical climates. The basic recipe for bitters is bitter orange peel, oil of carraway, cardamom, oil of wormwood and plenty of sugar.

A German named Johann Siegert moved to Venezuela in the 1820s to serve as the surgeon general in a revolutionary army. He settled in the town of Angostura and began producing his own brand of bitters for treating his soldiers for seasickness and digestive ailments. In the 1830s, he started bottling and selling his now-famous angostura bitters.

Soon British sailors worldwide were downing "medicinal" cocktails of London dry gin and a shot of Angostura Bitters, or what's known as a pink gin.

And then there's scurvy, the deadliest scourge for long-haul sailors. Over the 18th century, it's estimated that scurvy killed more British soldiers than the French. Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that brings on a host of nasty symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth fall out, old wounds reopen, loss of sensation in the limbs. It killed sailors in droves.

Scurvy can be easily cured with citrus fruit, but fresh citrus doesn't last long aboard a ship. Sailors tried to boil and condense lime juice, but the process cooked out the vitamin C. Eventually, a Scottish scientists named Lachlan Rose figured out a way to preserve lime juice by mixing it with a small quantity of sulphur dioxide. Rose's Lime Juice became a shipboard staple, and it wasn't long before it was being mixed with gin to make a classic gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.


How Gin Works

The characteristic flavor of London dry gin is the product of 19th century imperial expansion. Juniper strikes the strongest note, but the taste of a classic London dry gin is created by a blend of a dozen or more botanicals sourced from exotic ports as far away as Africa, China and South America.

In 1868, a typical London dry gin recipe might include: juniper, sweet fennel, orange peel, orange flower water, coriander seed, angelica root, calamus root, cassia buds, lemon peel, cardamom, oil of cedar, sweet almonds, nutmeg, mace, caraway seed, wintergreen and honey.

But one of the most fascinating byproducts of 19th century British imperialism is how the rigors of international sea travel and the health challenges of tropical colonial living led to the invention of classic gin cocktails like the gin and tonic, the pink gin and the gimlet.

First, the gin and tonic. Malaria was a plague on sailors and British colonists living in tropical climates. For centuries, natives of South America chewed on the bark of the chinchona tree to combat the symptoms of malaria. The bark contains a natural chemical called quinine that not only calms the muscle aches and spasms caused by malaria, but disrupts the malaria parasite's metabolism, eventually killing it.

When European doctors got wind of this, they began prescribing prophylactic chinchona bark to British soldiers and colonists in India. In the 1840s, British soldiers and settlers were consuming 700 tons (635 metric tons) of chinchona bark a year.

A water-soluble form of quinine was invented in the 1850s, which lead to the bottling of the first "Indian quinine tonics," the earliest tonic waters. Schweppes was one of the first big bottlers of carbonated tonic water.

Meanwhile, the British Navy was sailing to every port in the world and bringing bottles of London dry gin with them. It was only a matter of time before officers and colonists began combining their favorite tipple with a shot of tonic water for their health. And the gin and tonic was born!

The same with bitters. Bitters were first prescribed up as a curative tonic for gout in the 18th century. But by the 19th century, bitters were being sold as a cure-all for a host of travel-related ailments related to long sea journeys and life in tropical climates. The basic recipe for bitters is bitter orange peel, oil of carraway, cardamom, oil of wormwood and plenty of sugar.

A German named Johann Siegert moved to Venezuela in the 1820s to serve as the surgeon general in a revolutionary army. He settled in the town of Angostura and began producing his own brand of bitters for treating his soldiers for seasickness and digestive ailments. In the 1830s, he started bottling and selling his now-famous angostura bitters.

Soon British sailors worldwide were downing "medicinal" cocktails of London dry gin and a shot of Angostura Bitters, or what's known as a pink gin.

And then there's scurvy, the deadliest scourge for long-haul sailors. Over the 18th century, it's estimated that scurvy killed more British soldiers than the French. Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that brings on a host of nasty symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth fall out, old wounds reopen, loss of sensation in the limbs. It killed sailors in droves.

Scurvy can be easily cured with citrus fruit, but fresh citrus doesn't last long aboard a ship. Sailors tried to boil and condense lime juice, but the process cooked out the vitamin C. Eventually, a Scottish scientists named Lachlan Rose figured out a way to preserve lime juice by mixing it with a small quantity of sulphur dioxide. Rose's Lime Juice became a shipboard staple, and it wasn't long before it was being mixed with gin to make a classic gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.


How Gin Works

The characteristic flavor of London dry gin is the product of 19th century imperial expansion. Juniper strikes the strongest note, but the taste of a classic London dry gin is created by a blend of a dozen or more botanicals sourced from exotic ports as far away as Africa, China and South America.

In 1868, a typical London dry gin recipe might include: juniper, sweet fennel, orange peel, orange flower water, coriander seed, angelica root, calamus root, cassia buds, lemon peel, cardamom, oil of cedar, sweet almonds, nutmeg, mace, caraway seed, wintergreen and honey.

But one of the most fascinating byproducts of 19th century British imperialism is how the rigors of international sea travel and the health challenges of tropical colonial living led to the invention of classic gin cocktails like the gin and tonic, the pink gin and the gimlet.

First, the gin and tonic. Malaria was a plague on sailors and British colonists living in tropical climates. For centuries, natives of South America chewed on the bark of the chinchona tree to combat the symptoms of malaria. The bark contains a natural chemical called quinine that not only calms the muscle aches and spasms caused by malaria, but disrupts the malaria parasite's metabolism, eventually killing it.

When European doctors got wind of this, they began prescribing prophylactic chinchona bark to British soldiers and colonists in India. In the 1840s, British soldiers and settlers were consuming 700 tons (635 metric tons) of chinchona bark a year.

A water-soluble form of quinine was invented in the 1850s, which lead to the bottling of the first "Indian quinine tonics," the earliest tonic waters. Schweppes was one of the first big bottlers of carbonated tonic water.

Meanwhile, the British Navy was sailing to every port in the world and bringing bottles of London dry gin with them. It was only a matter of time before officers and colonists began combining their favorite tipple with a shot of tonic water for their health. And the gin and tonic was born!

The same with bitters. Bitters were first prescribed up as a curative tonic for gout in the 18th century. But by the 19th century, bitters were being sold as a cure-all for a host of travel-related ailments related to long sea journeys and life in tropical climates. The basic recipe for bitters is bitter orange peel, oil of carraway, cardamom, oil of wormwood and plenty of sugar.

A German named Johann Siegert moved to Venezuela in the 1820s to serve as the surgeon general in a revolutionary army. He settled in the town of Angostura and began producing his own brand of bitters for treating his soldiers for seasickness and digestive ailments. In the 1830s, he started bottling and selling his now-famous angostura bitters.

Soon British sailors worldwide were downing "medicinal" cocktails of London dry gin and a shot of Angostura Bitters, or what's known as a pink gin.

And then there's scurvy, the deadliest scourge for long-haul sailors. Over the 18th century, it's estimated that scurvy killed more British soldiers than the French. Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that brings on a host of nasty symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth fall out, old wounds reopen, loss of sensation in the limbs. It killed sailors in droves.

Scurvy can be easily cured with citrus fruit, but fresh citrus doesn't last long aboard a ship. Sailors tried to boil and condense lime juice, but the process cooked out the vitamin C. Eventually, a Scottish scientists named Lachlan Rose figured out a way to preserve lime juice by mixing it with a small quantity of sulphur dioxide. Rose's Lime Juice became a shipboard staple, and it wasn't long before it was being mixed with gin to make a classic gimlet.

(There are competing stories about the naming of the gimlet. Other sources say it might be named after Sir Thomas Gimlette, surgeon general to the British Navy, or the screwdriver-like hand tool used to open barrels of lime juice.)

Prohibition and "Bathtub Gin"

While the British colonists were enjoying their first mixed drinks, Americans were brewing up a cocktail culture of their own. By the Civil War (1860s), American-style cocktails were characterized by various combinations of liquor, bitters and sugar water and went by names like "gin-sling, sangaree, mint julep, sherry-cobbler and timber doodle."

The classic gin martini showed up in the 1870s and 1880s. From Richard Barnett, author of "The Book of Gin: A Spirited World History from Alchemists' Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin, and Artisanal Cocktails": The martini is "an embodiment of American history at its most diverse: Dutch and English gin, mixed with French vermouth, and served with Mediterranean olives, German-Jewish pickled onions or Caribbean lemons." The distinctive conical martini glass was popularized in the first decade of the 20th century.

But the real American cocktail boom was spurred by the passing of Prohibition in 1920. With a ban on the production and sale of alcohol, the booze industry went underground, and gin is one of the easiest spirits to make on the cheap.

The 1920s were like the Gin Craze all over again. Bootleggers would do anything to get their hands on grain alcohol. That included backdoor deals with industrial alcohol manufacturers and buying up moonshine from backwoods stills. Once you have the grain alcohol, it's a quick step to making gin. You could simply add water and juniper oil, but some folks were going back to the Gin Craze days of spiking grain alcohol with turpentine oil and sulphuric acid.

For Prohibition partiers, gone was the clean, piny finish of a London dry gin. Instead, they got "bathtub gin," a colorful nickname that alluded to its homemade origins and dirty aftertaste. But no worries, because even the foulest tasting bathtub gin could be covered up by a combination of strong bitters, citrus and simple syrup.

The martini, the Manhattan, the gin fizz, the gimlet: Jazz-Age Americans were crazy over cocktails, and after Prohibition ended in the 1930s, cocktail parties became the fashionable way to entertain.